Works cited in Gandalf: From Staff-Elf to Maia.


First written in May 2010 as a final paper for Mark Mullen's class on J.R.R. Tolkien. 

[1] Tolkien, J.R.R. The Hobbit. New York: Ballatine Books, 1967. 17.
[2] Sullivan, C.W. “Tolkien the Bard: His Tale Grew in the Telling.” J.R.R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances. Ed. George Clark & Daniel Timmons. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000. 11.
[3] Burns, Marjorie. “Gandalf and Odin.” Tolkien’s Legendarium: Essays on the History of Middle Earth. Ed. Verlyn Flieger & Carl Hostetter. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000. 220.
[4] The Poetic Edda. Trans. Lee M. Hollander. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 2000. 322.
[5] Shippey, Tom. The Road to Middle Earth. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2003. 96-97.
[6] Sturluson, Snorri. The Prose Edda. Trans. Jesse L. Byock. New York: Penguin, 2005. 125.
[7] Saga of the Volsungs. Trans. Jesse L. Byock. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990.
[8] The Hobbit, 17.
[9] Tolkien, J.R.R. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Humphrey Carter, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981. 119.
[10] Saga of the Volsungs, 38, 56.
[11] The Hobbit, 286-287.
[12] Tolkien, J.R.R. The Return of the Shadow. Christopher Tolkien, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988. 13-17.
[13] The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 216.
[14] The Return of the Shadow, 54-71.
[15] The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 216-217.
[16] Tolkien, J.R.R. The Treason of Isengard. Christopher Tolkien, ed. London: Unwin Hyman,1989. 9-23.
[17] The Treason of Isengard, 130-136.
[18] Burns, Marjorie. Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in Tolkien’s Middle-earth. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005. 93-94.
[19] The Treason of Isengard, 70-71.
[20] Tolkien, J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2004. 437.
[21] The Lord of the Rings, 590.
[22] The Lord of the Rings, 495.
[23] The Lord of the Rings, 759.
[24] The Prose Edda, 71-76.
[25] The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 203.
[26] The Lord of the Rings, 880.
[27] The Lord of the Rings, 757.
[28] The Treason of Isengard, 422.
[29] The Lord of the Rings, 502.
[30] Tolkien, J.R.R. Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-Earth. Christopher Tolkien, ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. 389.
[31] The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 202-203.
[32] The Lord of the Rings, 758.
[33] The Lord of the Rings, 971 and 966.
[34] Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle Earth, 390.
[35] The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 216.
[36] The Lord of the Rings, 250.
[37] Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle Earth, 321-326.
[38] The Lord of the Rings, 360-361.
[39] The Lord of the Rings, 56.
[40] Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle Earth, 330.
[41] The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King. Dir. Peter Jackson. New Line: 2004.